Facts About Italy

Italy….When you hear this word what is the first thing that you think? Is that pizza, spaghetti, fashion, Rome, art, history…Italy is one of the most interesting and the most particular countries in the world. If you didn’t knew much about it here are some facts about this unique country:


  1. The official name of Italy is Repubblica Italiana (Italian Republic), the name Italy comes form the word italia which means calf land ( the reason lies in fact that bull was a symbol of the Southern Italian tribes)
  2. The capital of Italy is Rome (Eternal City). Rome is about 3000 years old. It is one of the most beautiful cities in the world and it has many must see sights.
  3. There are two independent states in Italy: the Republic of San Marino and the Vatican City. San Marino is the oldest republic on the world and it has about 30000 citizens, while the Vatican City is the only nations in the world that can lock it own gates at night.
  4. Known as the “Three Fountains”, Dante Alighieri, Francesco Petrarca and Giovanni Boccaccio are the three most popular Italian authors of all the time. Dante’s Divine Comedy (Divina Commedia) had a big influence in Italian literature.
  5. Soccer is the most popular sport in Italy. The famous San Siro stadium in Milan can take 85000 people. Italy has won the World cup four times (1934, 1938, 1982, and 2006). Soccer fans in Italy are called tifosi (carriers of typhus).
  6. Italy is among the leaders of fashion industry. In 1950s, Nino Cerutti and Valentino created the stylish fashion. Armani, Versace, Prada, Gucci are world wide famous designers.
  7. Italy is also known for fine sports cars such as Ferrari and Lamborghini.
  8. Venice in Italy is one of the most unusual and the most visited cities. It is built on muddy islands in a wide and a shallow lagoon. It is also called town on the water and it is number one destination for love couples.
  9. The first violin was made in Italy in 1500s. It was probably in the workshop of Andrea Amati in Cremona.
  10. The first operas were composed in Italy at the end of the sixteenth century. The names: Gioacchino Rossini, Giacomo Puccini, Giuseppe Verdi, Luciano Pavarotti, Claudio Monteverdi and many others are the most famous in the world of opera.
  11. The language of music is Italian. The word “scale” comes from scala, meaning “step”. Andante, adagio, presto, vivace, allegro are some of the Italian notations.
  12. In northern Italy, last names often end in “i”, while those from the south often end in “o”.
  13. Parmesan cheese originated in the area around Parma, Italy. Italians also created many other cheeses, including gorgonzola, mozzarella, provolone, and ricotta.
  14. No one knows when the pizza was invented, but the people of Naples made it popular.
  15. Over 50 million tourists a year visit Italy. Be one of them!

What is a POP Music?

The definition of the POP music is very flexible as the music that is identified as pop music is constantly changing. The term “pop” came from an abbreviation of the word popular. Pop music is usually considerate to be commercially recorded music. It is usually consisted of relatively short and simple love songs, often oriented toward the teenagers.

Pop music absorbed many influences from other forms of popular music, but it is often associated with the rock and role and later rock style.

The basic form of pop music is the song usually consisted of verse and repeated chorus. They are often between two and a half and three and a half minute length.

Some musicologists identified some of the characteristics typical for pop music genre:

–          an aim of appealing to a general audience

–          an emphasis on craftsmanship

–          an emphasis on recording, production, and technology instead of live performing

–          Pop music is intended to encourage dancing.

The important and leading thing in pop music is the vocals and the good choice of instruments. Pop music genre is one of the most popular music genres today. Is it because of the love thematic in songs, visual and audio effects, good vocalists, decide for your self.

When Did Muhammad Ali Die?

Muhammad Ali is still alive! Born as Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr. on January 17 in 1942, he changes his name after joining the Nation of Islam in 1964. He is a former American boxer and three-time World Heavyweight Champion. He is also known as The Greatest, The Champ, The Louisville Lip and he is considered as one of the greatest heavyweight championship boxers ever.

In his boxing career he had 61 fights. He suffered only five losses, with no draws in his career and amazing number of wins, 56 (37 knockouts and 19 decisions). Ali was known for his special fighting style “float like a butterfly, sting like a bee”, as he liked to describe it. Ali stayed in boxing until he was 39.

In 1984, Ali was diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease. Despite of that, he remains a beloved and active public figure.

As one the best boxer ever, Ali was subject of many books, films and TV shows. For contributions to the theater industry, Muhammad Ali was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

He received many others honors, awards and medals.

Where Do Hurricanes Occur?

Hurricanes occur in the warmest region of the planet known as tropical convergence zone and they always travel from east to west.

The most hurricanes occur in the tropical oceans. The main reason for this is because it is the only place where the water is warm enough. The temperature of the ocean can’t be under the 27 degrees and the water depth must be over 50 meters. If the hurricane touches the ground or get to the cold ocean it will loose its power.

Hurricane can last for a week and the storm that hurricane produce is one of the worst natural disasters that affects the normal life.

There are several places in the oceans where hurricanes occur, and in every of them there is a hurricane season.

Hurricane season in North Atlantic Ocean starts in June and ends in November. There is number of places that can be affected by hurricane, such as Caribbean, Bermuda, and Central America.

Eastern North Pacific Ocean has the hurricane season from 15 May until 30 November.

Northwest Pacific Ocean has the typhoon season during all year.

Bay of Bengal / Arabian Sea has a cyclonic storm season from April until end of the year.

The hurricane season in Southwest Pacific Ocean, Southeast Indian Ocean and Southwest Indian Ocean begins at October 15 and ends in May.

Colossal Squid (Mesonychoteuthis Hamiltoni)

The Colossal Squid (Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni), also called the Antarctic or Giant Cranch Squid, is considered to be the biggest squid species, in terms of mass. Its maximum size it is estimated at 12-14 meters long, according to the analysis of smaller and not fully formed specimens, turning in into the biggest known invertebrate.

The Colossal Squid’s limbs are equipped with sharp, swiveling and three-pointed hooks. Unlike the giant squid, its body is wider and corpulent and thus much heavier. The squid displays abyssal gigantism, being the biggest known of any squid and with the largest eyes acknowledged in the animal kingdom.

The squid’s documented range reaches thousands of miles to the north from Antarctica to the south of South America and South Africa, and to the southern end of New Zealand, considered mainly a resident of the entire circumantartic Southern Ocean.

As there is little information about the life of the squid, it is thought to hunt chaetognatha, big fish such as the Patagonian toothfish and other squid in the ocean using bioluminescence. According to the capture depth of some specimens, the fully developed squid ranges to a depth of at least 2200 meters, while youngsters to a depth of 1000 meters. It is believed that female squids are much larger then the males, which is quite common in several species of invertebrates.

Although, the squid’s reproduction method has not been seen, it is deduced from anatomy that they use a penis to directly insert sperm into females.

Numerous sperm whales have scars on their backs thought to be caused by the hooks of the Colossal Squid. The squid beaks found in the stomachs of the sperm whales shows that Colossal Squid form up to 77% of the biomass eaten by them. Colossal Squid are a prey for other animals as well, such as the beaked whales, southern elephant seal, pilot whale, Pacific sleeper shark, Patagonian toothfish or albatross. Naturally, adult squids are consumed only by animals large enough to take them, for instance the sperm whale, while the others stick to youngsters or young adults.

In 1925, the first species were discovered in the form of two tentacles inside a sperm whale. In 1981, a Russian trawler in the Ross Sea captured a 4 meters long squid, later identified as an immature female Colossal Squid. In 2003, a specimen of a female squid with a length of 6 meters was found close to the surface. In 2005, a specimen was caught at 1625 meters deep at South Georgia Island with tentacles measuring 230 centimeters. In 2007, the biggest documented specimen was caught by a fishing boat off Antarctica with an actual weight of 495 kg.

The captured specimen with an estimated length of 10 meters and 495 kg was caught in the Ross Sea as it fed on an Antarctic toothfish. It was taken to the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Studies revealed that it is a female Colossal Squid. On December 13, 2008 the museum opened an exhibition displaying the specimen.

Colossal Squid Photos

Copper Bracelets

Copper bracelets for arthritis pain relief are an old traditional remedy, as it is considered that copper is absorbed by the skin to reduce joint pain. The idea of copper absorption is mainly subjective and highly controversial. It is also a fact that most people use copper jewelry for fashion and for its alleged medical function.

Copper is an important trace mineral found in all body tissues and together with iron, helps in the development of red blood cells, and also in maintaining the health of blood vessels, nerves, immune system and bones.

Studies conducted on animals suggest that oral copper supplements helps reducing the development and evolution of arthritis. Numerous people suffering from arthritis apply various copper solutions to their skin or wear some kind of copper bracelets in a desperate try to reduce pain and inflammation.

BBC news has reported that copper bracelets are useless for easing pain in people with arthritis. The BBC report is based on a large study which shows that copper bracelets and magnetic wrist straps have slight or absolutely no effect on pain. The study also says that any possible benefit of these devices can be simply explained by the placebo effect.

The above mentioned study was conducted by Dr Stewart J. Richmond and his team from the University of York, Durham University, the University of Hull and from other medical institutions in the UK.

The study tested the effectiveness of a general magnetic wrist strap sold for easing pain and stiffness in patients with osteoarthritis. The recruited participants were randomly assigned to one of four series of treatment. They wore the same device in different orders for 16 weeks, with every device worn for at least eight hours a day for four weeks. The four treatments included a standard MagnaMax wrist strap, a MagnaMax wrist strap with an attenuated magnetic field, a non-magnetic MagnaMax wrist strap and a copper bracelet (the placebo).

The research found no difference between the four devices in modification in pain outcomes and concluded that the use of magnetic wrist strap for four weeks had no notable therapeutic effect in patients with arthritis. The study establishes evidence that these magnetic wrist straps and copper wrist bracelets have no significant effect on pain or stiffness in osteoarthritis.

One significant finding of the study showed that pain was reduced by the standard magnetic wrist strap. The researchers involved in the study also expressed their opinion that the lack of effect in their study might be the result of the relatively short time of every treatment period (four weeks). They claim this is possible to mainly affect the copper bracelet treatment, but still the four weeks should have been enough for the magnetic wrist strap to produce its effect.

Carpal Tunnel Surgery

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome – CTS – refers to symptoms and signs caused by the compression of the median nerve going through the carpal tunnel. CTS affect the hands as it is a top limb neuropathy leading to motor and sensory disturbance of the median nerve.

This medical condition causes pain, paresthesias or weakness in the median nerve distribution. People with CTS might experience pain, numbness or tingling sensations in the arm, which might spread to the shoulder and neck area. Various stretching exercises of the wrist, hand and fingers might help in the prevention of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome causes various symptoms which will worsen over time and patients will experience numbness, tingling or even burning sensations in the fingers, especially the index and middle fingers affected by the median nerve. Pain will also spread in the arms and shoulder and will cause swelling of the hand, which will worsen at night. Patients diagnosed with Carpal Tunnel might experience weakness and atrophy of the thenar muscles if the medical condition is not properly treated.

Carpal Tunnel Surgery is carried out under twilight anesthesia which causes amnesia. With an incision on the wrist, the carpal ligament is detached in order to relieve the pressure on the median nerve. This procedure is called “Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery”. The incision is sutured and closed for the ligament tissue to scar back together in several months leaving more space.

The cost of surgery along with rehabilitation ranges from $5,000 to $10,000 with certain improvement registered in more than 70% of cases, while complete restoration is accomplished in less than 60% of performed surgeries. Rehabilitation usually ranges from six weeks to three months, but it might take more than a year, depending on the number of lingering symptoms result as well as the degree of scare tissue formation. The scare tissue formation throughout the recovery process is variable and might result in less space in the narrow passage of the wrist following the Carpal Tunnel Surgery. However, complications including increased discomfort and numbness are reported in only less than 15% of surgeries.

It is not unusual for patients recovering from this surgery to report certain permanent loss of grip strength, loss of lifting strength in the wrist and irritating loss of complete range of motion of the hand and/or wrist. These symptoms are due to the cutting off the Transverse Carpal Ligament and then relying on this crucial ligament to scar back together.

It is common for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Symptoms to reappear within a couple of years of surgery, when recurring activities continue with regular use of a person’s hands. Once the symptoms return, a second surgery will be taken in consideration by hand surgeons.

It is important to keep in mind that Carpal Tunnel Surgery will not permanently fix the problem. It is the main reason why surgeons usually require that the patient changes their hand use pattern or ask for a carrier change, prior of performing a second surgery.

Patients considering Carpal Tunnel Surgery frequently worry about the expected downtime, the risks of various complications, the possibility of permanent loss of grip strength and range of motion in the hand as a result of surgery. They are concerned about the possibly long, time consuming and rather painful rehabilitation process.

Anorexia Nervosa

What is anorexia nervosa?

Anorexia aervosa is an eating disorder where person refuse to eat and keep healthy weight due to distorted image of itself.

What cause anorexia nervosa?

Cultural beliefs and values are main reason for anorexia, but scientist claims that family genetics is one of the factors too.

Who can get anorexia nervosa?

All people, regardless of sex, nation, skin color or something else, however main risk is on younger women population.

What are the symptoms and effects of anorexia?

  • Loss of menstrual periods
  • Lack of energy and weakness
  • Weight loss: an obvious, rapid, dramatic weight loss
  • Feeling cold all the time
  • Dry, yellowish skin
  • Restlessness and insomnia
  • Dizziness, fainting, and headaches
  • Growth of fine hair all over the body and face

How anorexia nervosa is treated?

It is treated by the diet, so affected person is brought back on ideal weight. During diet period person is treated for its psychological issues.

Is anorexia life threatning?

Yes. If not threated anorexia could lead to death. In fact one of eight women which suffer from Anorexia die from complications it gets from the disease.

How many percent of people completely recover from anorexia?

Over 75% percent of people completely recover from anorexia without permanent defects.

Where are the anorexia documentaries?

Use the navigation on the right side to find the videos?

What sources are used for this data?